身心語言行為模式

http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%A5%9E%E7%B6%93%E8%AA%9E%E8%A8%80%E8%A6%8F%E5%8A%83

 

神經語言程序學Neuro-linguistic programmingNLP,又譯作「神經語言程式學」、「身心語言程式學」)是一套原理、信念和技術,其意圖為探索心靈神經學語言模式和人類感知與認知,安排組織以使之成為系統化模式以及如何在互动中建立主觀現實的人類行為,屬於實用心理學和行動策略的一種。

歷史

NLP發源地位於美國加州大學Santa Cruz分校。NLP有兩位創始人,其中一位叫做理察班德勒(Richard Bandler)主修電腦學系,但他卻醉心研究人類行為,遍讀心理學叢書,加上其天才橫溢的資質常常向傳統心理學派提出種種挑戰,另外一位是任教於加州大學的語言學家約翰,葛瑞德(John Grinder)。兩位皆不滿傳統心理學派的治療過程:時間太長,效果不能持久。在因緣際會之下,他們一起研究並模仿當時四位在人類溝通以及心理治療方面有卓越成就的大師在治療過程運用的語句、策略等。加上獨創的理念而整理出NLP 的理論架構,經過多年反覆的臨床實驗,証實NLP 在運用於人類行為改變方面具有非常顯著的效果。

他們模仿的四位大師分別是溝通大師葛瑞利.貝特森(Gregory Bateson),催眠治療大師,亦是艾克森催眠治療學派創始人米爾頓.艾瑞克森(Milton Hyland Erickson),家庭治療大師維珍尼亞.撒提亞(Virginia Satir) ,以及完形治療創始人弗烈茲.皮爾斯(Fritz Pearls)。

在理察及約翰眾多的弟子中有幾位現今都是NLP界中的頂級大師,包括NLP University的Dr. Robert Dilts及Judith Delozier,Self-Relations Psychotherapy Dr. Stephen Gilligan,Time-line Therapy創始人Dr. Tad James,与TCM 结合的华人Dennis Hsieh,被喻為「motivator中的motivator」的Anthony Robbins等。他們在各自的研究領域中都發展出深層行為改變的技巧。

內容

NLP身心語言程式學是提升人與人之間的溝通技巧以及使身心更積極正面之用:

[编辑]信念/「假設前提」
NLP身心語言程式學有12個最基本的「假設前提」(NLP Presuppositions):
01.
每個人各不同(沒有兩個人是一樣的)
02.
一個人不能控制另一個人(尊重別人的世界觀)
03.
有效用比有道理更實際
04.
只有由感官所構造成的世界,並沒有絕對的真實世界(瞎子摸象)
05.
對方的反應是溝通的目的和結果(溝通的意義決定對方的回應)
06.
重複舊的做法,只會得到舊的結果
07.
凡事都有最少三種解決方法
08.
每一個人都會選擇對自己最有利的行為(人人也是在各種限制下作出最佳的決定與行為)
09.
每一個人都具有使自己快樂成功的資源、條件
10.
任何一個系統裡,最靈活的部份是影響大局的最大因素
11.
凡事沒有失敗,只有回應信息
12.
動機和情勢都沒有錯,只是行為沒有效果而已

部份技巧

NLP身心語言程式學學員學生習觀察和分析別人的言行。其中,又分析四類型人:視覺型、聽覺型、感觀型、內音思想型人的特徵和表現和溝通方法。再以不同的邏輯和言語技巧,如「米爾頓模式」,甚至催眠言語技巧、口才、身體語言等改變自己,再影響他人、說服他人、輔導他人。

應用

有不少人如:政治家演说家推銷員傳道人教師社工輔導員管理層人事部等學習箇中技巧用於工作中,也有不少人用於和家人子女溝通。不少國際知名人士皆有學習和運用若干NLP技巧。

時光線治療

時光線治療(Time-Line Therapy)為NLP大師達特.詹姆斯博士(Dr.Ted James)以神經語言程式學為基礎,利用時光線方式模擬人腦對生活歷程之記憶,進而通過輕度催眠的方法達致治療目的的有效身心治療法,此方法可以極短的時間對人腦進行重編,主要包括以下六項步驟:

  1. 尋究時光線存在型態
  2. 找出問題的根源
  3. 釋放負面情緒
  4. 消除自我設限的決定
  5. 改變時光線的方向/位置
  6. 創造未來

水平與程度

NLP身心語言程式學課程有不同程度,如:執行師、高級執行師等。有不同國際組織簽發証書。 如美國ABNLP

外界的質疑

NLP倍受正統心理學質疑。Grant Devilly(2005)指出:

在初初推出的時候,NLP被認為是療法上的新突破,亦常見於工作坊、影帶、書本等廣告。這些工作坊提供證書 [……] 可是,在對照研究中,發覺沒有太大實際成效,而且廣告內經常夾雜一些極端或者經常改變的聲稱,所以研究員開始認為研究這方面是不智的,甚至覺得NLP是不可能測驗的理論。 [……] NLP 沒有 1970年代及1980年代般流行,但仍然在一些人力資源界小規模地進行。科學來了又沒有了,但信念還在。

NLP可能受到新紀元運動及人類潛能等信念影響。


What is NLP?

http://www.nlpu.com/NewDesign/NLPU_WhatIsNLP.html

NLP stands for Neuro-Linguistic Programming, a name that encompasses the three most influential components involved in producing human experience: neurology, language and programming. The neurological system regulates how our bodies function, language determines how we interface and communicate with other people and our programming determines the kinds of models of the world we create. Neuro-Linguistic Programming describes the fundamental dynamics between mind (neuro) and language (linguistic) and how their interplay affects our body and behavior (programming)

NLP is a pragmatic school of thought - an 'epistemology' - that addresses the many levels involved in being human. NLP is a multi-dimensional process that involves the development of behavioral competence and flexibility, but also involves strategic thinking and an understanding of the mental and cognitive processes behind behavior. NLP provides tools and skills for the development of states of individual excellence, but it also establishes a system of empowering beliefs and presuppositions about what human beings are, what communication is and what the process of change is all about. At another level, NLP is about self-discovery, exploring identity and mission. It also provides a framework for understanding and relating to the 'spiritual' part of human experience that reaches beyond us as individuals to our family, community and global systems. NLP is not only about competence and excellence, it is about wisdom and vision.

In essence, all of NLP is founded on two fundamental presuppositions: 

1. The Map is Not the Territory. As human beings, we can never know reality. We can only know our perceptions of reality. We experience and respond to the world around us primarily through our sensory representational systems. It is our 'neuro-linguistic' maps of reality that determine how we behave and that give those behaviors meaning, not reality itself. It is generally not reality that limits us or empowers us, but rather our map of reality. 

2. Life and 'Mind' are Systemic Processes. The processes that take place within a human being and between human beings and their environment are systemic. Our bodies, our societies, and our universe form an ecology of complex systems and sub-systems all of which interact with and mutually influence each other. It is not possible to completely isolate any part of the system from the rest of the system. Such systems are based on certain 'self-organizing' principles and naturally seek optimal states of balance or homeostasis. 

All of the models and techniques of NLP are based on the combination of these two principles. In the belief system of NLP it is not possible for human beings to know objective reality. Wisdom, ethics and ecology do not derive from having the one 'right' or 'correct' map of the world, because human beings would not be capable of making one. Rather, the goal is to create the richest map possible that respects the systemic nature and ecology of ourselves and the world we live in. The people who are most effective are the ones who have a map of the world that allows them to perceive the greatest number of available choices and perspectives. NLP is a way of enriching the choices that you have and perceive as available in the world around you. Excellence comes from having many choices. Wisdom comes from having multiple perspectives.

NLP was originated by John Grinder (whose background was in linguistics) and Richard Bandler (whose background was in mathematics and gestalt therapy) for the purpose of making explicit models of human excellence. Their first work The Structure of Magic Vol. I & II (1975, 1976) identified the verbal and behavioral patterns of therapists Fritz Perls (the creator of gestalt therapy) and Virginia Satir (internationally renowned family therapist). Their next work Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D. Vol. I & II(1975, 1976) examined the verbal and behavioral patterns of Milton Erickson, founder of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis and one of the most widely acknowledged and clinically successful psychiatrists of our times. 

As a result of this earlier work, Grinder and Bandler formalized their modeling techniques and their own individual contributions under the name "Neuro-Linguistic Programming "to symbolize the relationship between the brain, language and the body. The basics of this model has been described in a series of books including Frogs Into Princes (Bandler & Grinder, 1979 ) , Neuro-Linguistic Programming Vol. I (Dilts, Grinder, Bandler, DeLozier, 1980), Reframing (Bandler & Grinder, 1982) and Using Your Brain (Bandler, 1985). Through the years, NLP has developed some very powerful tools and skills for communication and change in a wide range of professional areas including: counseling, psychotherapy, education, health, creativity, law, management, sales, leadership and parenting. 

NLP is now in its third decade as a field of study and has evolved considerably since its beginnings in the mid 1970s. Over the years, NLP has literally spread around the world and has touched the lives of millions of people. Since the 1990's, a new generation of NLP has been developing. This form of NLP addresses generative and systemic applications and focuses on high level issues such as identity, vision and mission. More details about this new generation can be found in NLP II: The Next Generation - Enriching the Study of Subjective Experience (Dilts, DeLozier and Bacon Dilts):

"Neuro-Linguistic Programming not only describes the unique methodology, formalizations and models of NLP itself, but also gives precise examples of how NLP can have powerful applications for professionals in all fields. Psychotherapists, lawyers, salesmen, managers, negotiators, educators, in fact any practitioner of human beings, will find the applications of NLP both practical and powerful. 

NLP will provide tools for human interaction, learning, and the exchange of information that will ultimately do for the individual who applies them what the invention of the printing press has done for those who can read. NLP can increase the efficiency, quality, and development of knowledge in every area of human experience."


NLP: Neuro, linguistic and programming. 

http://www.holistic-online.com/hol_neurolinguistic.htm#HowDoesnlpWork


Best NLP iPhone Apps - Neuro Linguistic Programming Applications

http://suite101.com/article/best-nlp-iphone-apps---neuro-linguistic-programming-applications-a335512抑鬱症;

 

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